You have a great recipe for rusks, you want to sell at the local flea market or perhaps you would like to become a home chef? Whatever your food business may be, our two part article explain the process into 10 actionable steps for you. The second part of our article looks at hygienic practices and the duties of the boss and the food handlers.
The fundamentals of food safety
In Part 1 of this article you will have discovered that in order to manufacture food in South Africa or open a restaurant or coffee shop, you have to comply with the Hygiene regulation under the Foodstuffs Cosmetics and Disinfectants Act, Act 54 of 1972. Yes, the regulation used to be under the Health Act, but it was moved. Of course, it is still a matter of public health concern.
So what does regulation R962 – “Regulations governing general hygiene requirements for food premises and transport” actually say in plain English?
Food must not be stored directly on the floor. This includes all ingredients too. Always store on a pallet or crate to ensure it cannot be contaminated.
Food on display must be protected – no fingers, no flies, no dust, no condensation. Look at how you handle a buffet or salad displays in a retail store. Food in storage must also be protected – make sure you cover all containers.
Temperature is a critical issue to ensure the safety of your food. Make sure hot is hot and cold is cold. In fact, make sure you keep to the following:
These temperatures should be monitored regularly and be recorded. Think about it – otherwise how would you prove it when there is an alleged complaint. You will need an accurate thermometer.
While a uniform can be trendy and build your brand, it’s up to you to ensure your food is protected from the people handling it. To this end, it’s up to you to clothe them with proper protective clothing. This clothing is to protect the food primarily so it must be clean and not a source of contamination. If buttons can fall off into your coleslaw, that would be contamination. So, in general we avoid buttons, zips and the like.
White clothing is always the best – you guessed it – it does show the dirt off and then you should wash it frequently. By the way, it is up to YOU to keep it clean, not the employee. Best to use a professional service who have a good reputation in the food industry. You will need more than one set of clothing. Ideally three sets will ensure you have a clean change daily.
Long sleeves are always the best option.
Hair should always be covered - to avoid it falling into food. Yes I know hairnets are not sexy….tough, deal with it and make sure you set a good example.
If your name is on the certificate of acceptability – the buck stops with you!
The law makes you responsible for the following:
• Adhering to the legislation
• Doing the right things to keep flies, other insects, rodents or vermin under control on the food premises;
• Making sure any person working on the food premises is adequately trained in food hygiene and that your staff follow the regulations
• Ensuring waste and waste containers are handled correctly to that it does not create a Nuisance or health hazard
• Keeping the food premises and all facilities, freight compartments of vehicles and containers are clean and free from any unnecessary materials that have a negative effect on the general hygiene of the food premises;
• Supervising staff to ensure that no person handling non-prepacked food wears any jewellery
• Making sure there are no animals around food handling areas
• Esure that there are no unhygienic practices taking place at the facility.
• Make sure no one handles ready-to-consume non-prepacked food with his or her bare hands, unless it is unavoidable for preparation purposes.
• Finally keep records of illness and conditions you and your staff may suffer from as listed in the law which could potentially be transmitted via food.
It’s not just you, although obviously, you will be accountable at all times. The law speaks directly to your staff too regarding the following:
Your staff must know that:
Food shall not be handled by any person -
• whose fingernails, hands or clothes are not clean;
• who has not washed his or her hands thoroughly with soap and water or cleaned them in another effective manner -
o immediately prior to the commencement of each work shift;
o at the beginning of the day's work or after a rest period;
o after every visit to a latrine or urinal;
o every time he or she has blown his or her nose or after his or her hands have been in contact with perspiration or with his or her hair, nose or mouth;
o after handling a handkerchief, money or a refuse container or refuse;
o after handling raw vegetables, fruit, eggs, meat or fish and before
o handling ready-to-use food;
o after he or she has smoked or on return to the food premises; or
o after his or her hands have become contaminated for any other reason.
They also need to know that if they are ill with diarrhea or vomiting, it is best not to come to work. Trust me, you would rather they were not there than risk infecting the entire production or restaurant seating for the day. Don’t forget to keep a record of this though – it’s the law.
Any cuts, abrasions, abscesses or skin condition on their hands and arms should also be immediately reported to you. You will need a first aid box to be able to provide treatment and then gloves to cover the dressing to avoid it landing in your potato salad.
You will need to ensure you staff behave hygienically and therefore do not do any of the following:
• spit in an area where food is handled or on any facility;
• smoke or use tobacco in any other manner while he or she is handling non-prepacked food or while he or she is in an area where such food is handled;
• handle non-prepacked food in a manner that brings it into contact with any exposed part of his or her body, excluding his or her hands;
• lick his or her fingers when he or she is handling non-prepacked food or material for the wrapping of food;
• cough or sneeze over non-prepacked food or food containers or facilities;
• spit on whetstones or bring meat skewers, labels, equipment, or any other object used in the handling of food or any part of his or her hands into contact with his or her mouth, or inflate sausage casings, bags or other wrappings by mouth or in any other manner that may contaminate the food;
• walk, stand, sit or lie on food or on non-hermetically sealed containers containing food or on containers or on food-processing surfaces or other facilities;
• use a hand washbasin for the cleaning of his or her hands and simultaneously for the cleaning of facilities; or
• while he or she is handling food, perform any act other than those referred to above which could contaminate or spoil food.
A long list which is ideally incorporated into a code of conduct which all employees should sign, including you. You might have to use it as a reminder from time to time. Old habits do die hard so expect to be talking about this daily. It’s best to have a formal inspection every day to keep everyone honest.
Finally, the law does address how you transport food. If you have your own vehicles, they are usually covered by your certificate of acceptability. If you use an outsourced provider, please make sure they have certificates of acceptability for their trucks.
Trucks must be clean – obviously. You cannot transport food with any of the following:
• contaminated food or waste food;
• poison or any harmful substance;
• a live animal; or
• any object that may contaminate or spoil the food.
So tackle these 1o items and you are well on your way to compliance with the most basic legal requirement of the country. Even street vendors are required to comply with this one. And when you see your local EHP – please give them a hug!
Note R962 has now been replaced with R638 view more